Formulary of the Mass

Pontifical Liturgy Institute

Formulary of the Mass: Dynamic text and rite
Taught byDaniel McCarthy

Optional seminar offered in English: 94495  (3 ECTS)
This page was thoroughly revised, 10 February 2018.

Brief description

The three proper prayers of one mass formulary reveal the dynamic movement of the eucharistic liturgy from entrance procession to the procession with the gifts and communion procession and sometimes even hinting of the procession back home. Each mass formulary expresses this dynamic movement in different ways.

This seminar provides a context for the student-scholar to learn and apply a method to discern the dynamic movement latent in three proper prayers from from one mass formulary, in three stages:

  1. Heuristics: the student-researcher studies the literary composition and ritual contexts of the prayers.
  2. Hermeneutics: the student-scholar interprets the prayers in their liturgical-ritual context and according to four pairs of interpretative keys.
  3. Synthetics: the student-author formulates a proposal that addresses the concerns of an identified audience and presents the three prayers of one mass formulary both in the seminar and finally in a written summative paper.

In this seminar, the student joins the collegial discussion among scholar-participants, as the professor provides careful supervision of the work undertaken.

Aims

By the end of this course the student will have done and will know a method for doing the following:

  1. Heuristics: the student will have gathered essential information on the three prayers of one mass formulary, their Latin expression, liturgical context.
  2. Hermeneutics: the student will have interpreted the prayers both in their ritual-liturgical context to understand the dynamic movement of the eucharistic liturgy from the entrance to the presentation and communion and finally departure, and according to four pairs of interpretative keys: anamnesis (narration – ritual programme); epiclesis (presentation – invocation); eschatology – (fulfillment – moral life and personal maturation); theosis (a personal way of living in freedom and love).
  3. Synthetics: the student will have integrated the findings and interpretation into a reasoned proposal intended to address the concerns of an identified audience, and will have communicated this in oral form to the participants in the seminar and in written form in a final summative paper.
  4. The student conducts personal research while engaged in collaborative conversation with colleague-scholars, as the professor carefully directs their attention and encourages deeper investigation.

Structure of the course

  1. In this seminar the professor reviews methods of finding data, interpreting the three prayers in their respective contexts and writing a summative paper; the professor provides careful moderation.
  2. Each student presents an analysis of the Latin expression of the three prayers. In a first presentation each student presents the Latin expression of his or her three prayers. This is further developed in another presentation of the semiotics of the prayer, answering the question “Who does what to whom?”.
  3. In a final presentation each student interprets the meaning of the prayers in their liturgical-ritual context according to the four pairs of interpretative keys.
  4. Seminar discussions encourage learning from others and support self-motivated personal research and sharing personal reflections.
  5. Each student integrates this historical and hermeneutical method and findings in the preparation of a reasoned proposal on the Latin text of the three prayers intended to address the concerns of an identified audience.

Learning activities

  1. Each session begins with a clear and accurate understanding of the Latin text of one formulary consisting of three prayers.
  2. The student-scholar interprets the meaning of the prayers in their liturgical-ritual context and according to four pairs of interpretative keys.
  3. The student-author addresses the particular concerns of an identified audience in two oral presentations on the prayers and in the final written summative paper.

Schedule

The course is currently scheduled for Wednesday afternoons of the Spring semester 2018, which permits only 10 encounters. I have requested to transfer the course to Thursday afternoons, which would permit 12 encounters. The current schedule is followed in the description below. 

The organizational meeting will be held on Wednesday 21 February. Sessions continue until the end of the semester at the end of May 2018. Sessions begin at 15:30 on each of the following days:

21, 28 February
7, 14 March
(Easter break)
11, 18 April
2, 8, 16, 22 May

Note: no classes are held in the afternoon on the following days:

14 February = Ash Wednesday
21 March = Feast of St Benedict
25 April = National Holiday

Hours: 15:30-17:05

First session 15:30-16:15
Break: 16:15-16:20
Second session 16:20-17:05

Office Hours

Please do not phone the instructor.
Rather email him at danielmccarthyosb AT mac DOT com.

He is available outside of class time by appointment.

Bibliography

♦ Leachman, J.G. – McCarthy, D.P., « The formation of the Ecclesial Person through Baptismal Preparation and celebrations of the RCIA: The Collects of the Scrutinies », The Liturgical Subject: Subject and Subjectivity, ed. J. Leachman, SCM–University of Notre Dame Press, London – Notre Dame, IL 2008, 172-200.

♦ Leachman, J.G. –McCarthy, D.P., « Preparation for the Piazza: The Preface of the Second Scrutiny (the Fourth Sunday in Lent): the mystagogical formation of the neophytes and the assembly, » Conference of Societas Liturgica, « Liturgy and the Piazza », Studia Liturgica 38 (2008) 114-33.

♦ Leachman, J.G., “The Role of the Holy Spirit in the Catechumenal Preparation for Baptism in OICA,” in Spíritus spiritália nóbis dóna poténter infúndit[Studia Anselmiana 139], PIL, Roma 2006, 277-292.

♦ Leachman, J.G., “The Holy Spirit in the Period of Purification and Enlightenment in RCIA,” Studia Liturgica 36 (2006) 185-2007.

♦ Transition in the Easter Vigil: Becoming Christians. Paschali in vigilia Christiani nominis fieri, ed. D.P. McCarthy – J.G. Leachman (Documenta rerum ecclesiasticarum instaurata, Liturgiam aestimare: Appreciating the Liturgy 2), St. Michael’s Abbey Press, Farnborough 2011, 295-322.

Also recommended:

♦ LEWIS, C.T.,- SHORT, C., A Latin Dictionary, OUP, Oxford-New York 1879, reprinted 1995.

♦ Appreciating the CollectAn Irenic Methodology, ed. J.G. Leachman – D.P. McCarthy (Documenta rerum ecclesiasticarum instaurata, Liturgiam aestimare: Appreciating the Liturgy 1), St. Michael’s Abbey Press, Farnborough 2008.

♦ FOSTER, R. – D.P. MCCARTHY, Ossa Latinitatis Sola ad mentem Reginaldi rationemqueThe mere bones of Latin according to the thought and system of Reginald (Latinitatis Corpus 1), Catholic University of America Press, Washington DC 2016.

♦ MCCARTHY, D., “Seeing a Reflection, Considering Appearances: The History, Theology and Literary Composition of the Missale Romanum at a Time of Vernacular Reflection”, Questions Liturgiques / Studies in Liturgy 94 (2013) 109-143.

♦ LEACHMAN, J.G. “A New Liturgical Hermeneutic: Christian Maturation by Developmental Steps”, New Blackfriars 90 (2009) 219-231.

♦ LEACHMAN, J.G., – D.P. MCCARTHY, “A Liturgical Study of the proper prayers for St Charles of St Andrew Houben, C.P., (1) The Opening Prayer,” Questions Liturgiques: Studies in Liturgy 92 (2011) 28-44 (second edition of “J.G. Leachman, “Studium liturgiczne kolekty o św. Karolu od św. Andrzeja Houbenie CP”, Słowo Krzyża Crucis Verbum 4 [2010], 230-243).

Enter an inflected form of your word in the field under the heading “Dictionary Entry Lookup”, located in the column on the right.
Parsing tool with Lewis and Short Dictionary♦ LEWIS and SHORT dictionary available here: Enter the dictionary entry for your word in the field under the heading “Dictionary Entry Lookup”, located in the column on the right.

 

Examination

Preparation: Having agreed with the instructor upon the three prayers of a Latin formulary from the Missale Romanum, the student conducts his or her own study of the prayers and presents the findings in three brief seminar presentations. The student also participates in the seminar discussion on the research of other collegue-participants. The student uses the shared discussion and personal research to revise and further develop a final summative paper.

Examination in detail

Explanation: The student presents his or her findings in class three times and has the chance to revise the material based on class discussion and feedback from the instructor, before submitting a research paper of 10 pages of text but not more than 15 pages, following the norms of the PIL (without binding). The norms of the PIL may be downloaded here.

Criteria for evaluation: Both the regular in class presentations by the student of his or her ongoing research and the final paper are assessed based on the following criteria:

  1. understanding of the method and quality of its application to the particular prayers,
  2. logical organisation of the material and its clear presentation,
  3. accuracy of information and analysis,
  4. consistency in style of notes and bibliography,
  5. sources preferaby in their original languages,
  6. theological accuracy

Mode of evaluation: The final assessment will be based 50% on class participation and 50% on the final written paper.

When: The final paper is to be handed in to the Registrar no later than 24 May 2018. If the student would like to receive back a copy with notations and comments the submission should be accompanied by such a request.

Academic program

The program of studies, course descriptions and calendar for the academic year 2017-2018 is available for download here.

Place

This course is offered in English at the Pontifical Institute of Liturgy housed at:

Sant’Anselmo
Piazza Cavalieri di Malta, 5
00153 Roma, Italia

See map below.

 

Schedule in detail
2017-2018

Session 1: Wednesday, 21 February 2018

Since this is a seminar and the students are expected to work together, we shall begin with general introductions of the students to one another.

We shall go over the syllabus, bibliography and make a visit to the library.

For session 2 the students are requested to choose the mass formulary they wish to examine. A formulary consists of the three short prayers assigned to one mass: the proper collect, the prayer super oblata and the prayer post communionem.

In choosing a formulary, participants in the seminar may choose the formulary of a Sunday of ordinary time, a Sunday of one of the four seasons or one of the feasts of the Lord which is observed on a Sunday. Participants may examine another fromulary after having secured the assent of the seminar moderator.

Each student is encouraged to access the instructor’s English translations of numerous mass formularies of Sundays and feasts published in The Tablet of London from 28 November 2009 – 20 November 2010, available at the front desk of the library. A listing of these commentaries arranged according to their liturgical day are found at this link.

During this first encounter, the seminar moderator will present his analysis of the following mass formulary, thereby offering an example of what the participants are to do in their presentations.

DOMINICA V PASCHAE

COLLECTA

( Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, )
semper ( in nobis ) paschale perfice sacramentum,
{ut, [ quos sacro baptismate dignatus es renovare, ]
( sub tuae protectionis auxilio ) multos fructus afferant,
et ( ad aeternae vitae gaudiapervenire concedas. }

Almighty eternal God,
ever bring the Easter mystery to perfection in us
so that the ones,
whom you have deemed worthy to renew by sacred Baptism,
may bear much fruit under the help of your protection
and may you allow us to arrive at the joys of eternal life.

SUPER OBLATA

( Deus ), [ qui nos, ( per huius sacrificii veneranda commercia, )
unius summaeque divinitatis participes effecisti, ]
praesta, ( quaesumus, ) [ ut, ( sicut tuam cognovimus veritatem, )
sic eam dignis moribus assequamur. ]

O God, who through the venerable exchanges of this sacrifice
have made us sharers of the one and highest divinity,
grant, we ask, that, just as we have come to know your truth,
we may likewise live up to it by worthy actions.

POST COMMUNIONEM

Populo tuo, ( quaesumus, ) ( Domine, ) adesto propitius,
et, ( quem mysteriis caelestibus imbuisti, )
fac (ad novitatem vitae ) ( de vetustate ) transire.

Mercifully be present to your people, we ask, O Lord,
and make the people, which you have filled with heavenly mysteries,
to pass from oldness to newness of life.

Translations and commentary:

Collect: D.P. McCarthy, “Towards eternal joy”, Listen to the Word, The Tablet (13 May 2006) 25.

Super oblata: D.P. McCarthy, “A holy transaction”, Listen to the Word, The Tablet (19 April 2008) 17.

Post communionem: D.P. McCarthy, “From old to new”, Listen to the Word, The Tablet (9 May 2009) 17.

Formulary and translations: D.P. McCarthy, “Mystery ever Growning”, Listen to the Word, The Tablet (1 May 2010) 20.

THE FIRST ROUND OF PRESENTATIONS

Session 2: Wednesday, 28 February

Unless they make other arrangments, I suggest the following four participants present the prayers of their respective formularies during this second sesion:

  1. Anthony Ezechukwu Etunwoke
  2. Philip Desmond Gyapong
  3. Justin Thiraviam
  4. Shaji Wilfred

For each prayer of an agreed upon mass formulary the participant is to present:

  1. the Latin text of the prayer:
    1. with the action words (verbs, participles, gerunds, gerundives) underlined,
    2. with brackets around each clause.
  2. Draw a tree showing how one clause depends on another and label the connecting words at the juncture of each branch, that is clause.
  3. Draw a timeline of the actions and goals.
  4. Discern the interpretative categories of the prayer and complete a chart with three columns with the following three headings in this order from left to right:
    Latin text | function in Latin sentence | interpretative category.
    See the analysis of the literary forms in: J.L., Leachman, “The Collect for the Easter vigil”, in Appreciating the Collect, 105-140, especially pp. 117-125; and in: Leachman, J.G., – D.P. McCarthy, “A Liturgical Study of the proper prayers for St Charles of St Andrew Houben, C.P., (1) The Opening Prayer,” Questions Liturgiques: Studies in Liturgy 92 (2011) 28-44, especially pp. 31-37.
  5. give a draft rendering of the prayer in clear English (or Italian) as well as the student’s mother language.

Currently ten participants are enrolled for credit in this seminar. Thus, each participant will have no more than 20 minutes to present the above material for all three prayers of his or her formulary. The only way to achieve this is for the presenter to have prepared in advance all five items above for each of the three prayers in the formulary and either to print them out for distribution to each participant or to have a PowerPoint type presentation ready to present this same material. We will work through only as much material as is possible within the 20 minute limit.

For each prayer of a formulary, a participant is to prepare the five above listed items in writing and hand them in to the seminar moderator who will consider them and give feedback in writing during the following session.

These four presentations should take at most 90 minutes of our session together. This leaves 10 minutes for the moderator to present one item well in advance for the second round of presentations.

The seminar moderator will begin to present the semiotic analysis of the prayers by showing how to ask the question “Who does it?”. From this the moderator will examine how the divine-human exchange is presented in the general text of this prayer.

Session 3: Wednesday, 7 March

Unless they make other arrangments, I suggest the following four participants present during this third sesion:

  1. Emmanuel Francis Beecher
  2. Akofang Hendrick Mantu
  3. Ronald Noronha
  4. Sushil Toppo

Each participant presents the same material listed in session 2 for his or her agreed upon formulary.

These four presentations should take at most 90 minutes of our session together. This leaves 10 minutes for the moderator to present one item well in advance for the second round of presentations.

The seminar moderator will present the second step of semiotic analysis of a prayer by showing how to ask the question “Who does what?”. From this the moderator will further develop an understanding of how the divine-human exchange is presented in the text of the chosen prayer.

Session 4: Wednesday, 14 March

Unless they make other arrangments, I suggest the following two participants present during this third sesion:

  1. Jovitus Ikenna Aneke
  2. Geoffrey Lloyd Alexander Young

Each participant presents the same material listed in session 2 for his or her agreed upon formulary.

These presentations should take at most 40 minutes of our session together. This leaves 50 minutes for the moderator to present one item well in advance for the second round of presentations.

The seminar moderator will present the third step of semiotic analysis of a prayer by showing how to ask the question “Who does what to whom?”. From this the moderator will further develop an understanding of how the divine-human exchange is presented in the text of the chosen prayer.

In addition to this, the moderator will then summarise the semiotics for all three prayers of the example formulary.

THE SECOND ROUND OF PRESENTATIONS

Session 5: Wednesday, 11 April

Unless they make other arrangments, I suggest the following four participants present the prayers of their respective formularies during this fifth sesion:

  1. Anthony Ezechukwu Etunwoke
  2. Philip Desmond Gyapong
  3. Justin Thiraviam
  4. Shaji Wilfred

For each prayer of an agreed upon mass formulary the participant is to present the semiotics of each prayer in three stages according to three questions:

  1. Who does it?
    1. The presenter presents a chart that identifies the subject of each action word (verbs, participles, gerunds, gerundives),
    2. When a verbal form is passive, both the subject of the passive form is identified and the agent of the passive action is also identified in ( rounded parentheses ). If this latter agent is not explicit, then the presenter considers the possibility of implied divine agency or another implied agent, whjich is also indicated in ( rounded parentheses ).
    3. The presenter then develops and understanding about the divine-human exchange in the overall prayer by active and passive means.
  2. Who does what?
    1. The previous chart is copied and the following are added to it to form the second chart.
    2. Typically the “what” is the direct object of a prayer or the indirect object of the 65 verbs (See: Ossa, Encounter 33, item 7.2) or compound verbs (See: Ossa, Encounter 33, item 7.3).
    3. The presenter then further develops the understanding of how the divine-human exchange is presented in the text of the prayer.
  3. Who does what to whom?
    1. The previous chart developed from the first two questions is then copied and the following is added to it to form the third chart.
    2. Typically the “to whom” describes the indirect object of the action (in contrast to the direct object), but this is also somewhat of a grab-bag category that includes the use of the ablative and some prepositional phrases.
    3. From this the presenter will further develop an understanding of how the divine-human exchange is presented in the text of the prayer.
  4. Rarely does a prayer also present an obstacle to be overcome in the acitons of the divine-huamn exchange. This may also be examined and presented.
  5. The presentor will seek to discern the development in the semiotics of the three prayers of the agreed upon formulary and present this.

Each participant will have no more than 20 minutes to present the above material for all three prayers of his or her formulary. The only way to achieve this is for the presenter to have prepared in advance all five items above for each of the three prayers in the formulary and either to print them out for distribution to each participant or to have a PowerPoint type presentation ready to present this same material. We will work through only as much material as is possible within the 20 minute limit.

For each prayer of a formulary, a participant is to prepare the five above listed items in writing and hand them in to the seminar moderator who will consider them and give feedback in writing during the following session.

These four presentations should take at most 90 minutes of our session together. This leaves 10 minutes for the moderator to present one item well in advance for the second round of presentations.

Anamnesis: The seminar moderator will begin to present the anamnetic character of a prayer by seeking to name how the prayer:

  1. narrates the saving works of God,
  2. rarely presents a ritual programme,
  3. and concludes part of a larger ritual programme:
    1. the entrance procession and rites conclude with the collect,
    2. the procession with the gifts and their preparation conclude with the prayer super oblata,
    3. the communion procession concludes with the prayer post communionem,
    4. and the prayer post communionem may refer in some way to our daily lives, suggesting the procession back home and return to daily life.

For this and the other interpretative keys, see: D.P. McCarthy, “Between Memories and Hopes: Anamnesis and Eschatology in selected collects”, Appreciating the Collect;
See the analysis of the interpretative keys in: J.L., Leachman, “The Collect for the Easter vigil”, in Appreciating the Collect, 105-140, especially pp. 127-131; and in: Leachman, J.G., – D.P. McCarthy, “A Liturgical Study of the proper prayers for St Charles of St Andrew Houben, C.P., (1) The Opening Prayer,” Questions Liturgiques: Studies in Liturgy 92 (2011) 28-44, especially pp. 37-43.

Session 6: Wednesday, 18 April

Unless they make other arrangments, I suggest the following four participants present during this third sesion:

  1. Emmanuel Francis Beecher
  2. Akofang Hendrick Mantu
  3. Ronald Noronha
  4. Sushil Toppo

Each participant presents the same material listed in session 5 for his or her agreed upon formulary.

These four presentations should take at most 90 minutes of our session together. This leaves 10 minutes for the moderator to present one item well in advance for the second round of presentations.

Epiclesis: The seminar moderator will present the epicletic character of the prayers. This involves describing:

  1. how the Christian assembly present’s itself before God in prayer,
  2. how the prayer invokes God to be present and to act in the liturgical assembly.

Session 7: Wednesday, 2 May

Unless they make other arrangments, I suggest the following two participants present during this third sesion:

  1. Jovitus Ikenna Aneke
  2. Geoffrey Lloyd Alexander Young

Each participant presents the same material listed in session 5 for his or her agreed upon formulary.

These presentations should take at most 40 minutes of our session together. This leaves 50 minutes for the moderator to present two ways in which we change in these prayers.

Eschatology – Moral action: The seminar moderator will present the moral behaviour suggested by some prayers as an expression of the eschatological character of a prayer.

Eschatology – Human maturation: From the timeline of the prayer, the specific sequence of actions and their alternation both active and passive, will be used to present the developmental steps of Christian maturation implicit in the prayer leading to the moral action described in the prayer.

Theosis: The second form of change is a change of identity or of status which in some ways implies sharing in divine life. This is developed to some degree from the previous semiotic analysis of who does what to whom. To share in divine life is to become a fully human person in the likeness of the Divine Trinity by becoming a free person in love. The prayers are considered for their expression of sharing in divine life by becoming a free person in love.

THE THIRD ROUND OF PRESENTATIONS

Session 8: Wednesday, 8 May

Unless they make other arrangments, I suggest the following four participants present the prayers of their respective formularies during this eighth sesion:

  1. Anthony Ezechukwu Etunwoke
  2. Philip Desmond Gyapong
  3. Justin Thiraviam
  4. Shaji Wilfred

For each prayer of an agreed upon mass formulary the participant is to present:

  1. the anamnetic character of the prayer, including:
    1. the narration of the saving works of God,
    2. the ritual programme perhaps expressed in the prayer
    3. and the ritual context of the prayer;
  2. the epicletic character of the prayer, including:
    1. how the Christian assembly presents itself to God in prayer,
    2. how the liturgical assembly invokes the divine presence and action;
  3. the eschatological character of the prayer, including
    1. moral bahaviour as expressed in the prayer,
    2. and the steps of human maturation expressedi n the sequence of actions in the prayer, alternating by active and passive measures;
  4. the theotic character of the prayer, including
    1. the ways in which we are changed in identity or status,
    2. how we become free persons in love.

Currently ten participants are enrolled for credit in this seminar. Thus, each participant will have no more than 20 minutes to present the above material for all three prayers of his or her formulary. The only way to achieve this is for the presenter to have prepared in advance all four items above for each of the three prayers in the formulary and either to print them out for distribution to each participant or to have a PowerPoint type presentation ready to present this same material. The presenter will have to decide which elements to present based either on their clear articulation in a prayer or based on the presenter’s desire for feedback on one of these four characteristics less well developed in a prayer. We will work through only as much material as is possible within the 20 minute limit.

For each prayer of a formulary, a participant is to prepare the four above listed items in writing and hand them in to the seminar moderator who will consider them and give feedback in writing during the following session.

These four presentations should take at most 90 minutes of our session together. This leaves 10 minutes for the moderator to present one item well in advance for the second round of presentations.

Clearly all of the materials presented to the seminar moderator are too much to be included in one paper. They form, rather, the backgorund research necessary to begin to formulate a synthesis and write a paper addressed to a particular audience. The seminar moderator will begin to present the process of developing a paper based on all of the research presented.

Session 9: Wednesday, 16 May

Unless they make other arrangments, I suggest the following four participants present during this third sesion:

  1. Emmanuel Francis Beecher
  2. Akofang Hendrick Mantu
  3. Ronald Noronha
  4. Sushil Toppo

Each participant presents the same material listed in session 8 for his or her agreed upon formulary.

These four presentations should take at most 90 minutes of our session together. This leaves 10 minutes for the moderator to present one item well in advance for the second round of presentations.

The seminar moderator will continue to present the process of developing a paper based on all of the research presented.

Session 10: Wednesday, 22 May

Unless they make other arrangments, I suggest the following two participants present during this third sesion:

  1. Jovitus Ikenna Aneke
  2. Geoffrey Lloyd Alexander Young

Each participant presents the same material listed in session 8 for his or her agreed upon formulary.

These presentations should take at most 40 minutes of our session together. This leaves 50 minutes for the moderator to conclude the process of developing a paper based on all of the research presented.

Again, the final research paper of 10 pages of text but not more than 15 pages, following the norms of the PIL (without binding) should be handed in to the registrar not later than 24 May 2018.

THE FOURTH ROUND OF PRESENTATIONS

If our class is held on Thursday and the schedule extends to twelve sessions rather than only ten, the following two sessions will be held.

Session 11: Thursday, xx March

Five participants will each present a summary of his or her final paper. Each presenter will have up to 15 minutes, which means that only the central findings can be presented.

Session 12: Thursday, xx March

Five participants will each present a summary of his or her final paper. Each presenter will have up to 15 minutes, which means that only the central findings can be presented.

Materials continued

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© 9 February 2018 by Daniel McCarthy