Footnotes – Bibliography

For a book:
Name of the author
Page numbers in a bibliography
Alphabetising according to the surname
Title of a book
Number of volumes
Editor
Series title
Publisher
Imprint
City
Date of publication
Edition
Page numbers
Translated works
Abbreviations
5 vol. VS vol. 5

Chapter in a book

Article in a journal

Subsequent references

Abbreviations

From the beginning of your research keep accurate records of the resources you use and begin to compile a biography in correct format. When you consult a book, take an image of the title page, the copyright page and the page with the series information, often opposite the title page, and keep track of the pages consulted so that you can get the full information necessary to write its bibliography.

cover of Ecclesia orans
Ecclesia orans Style Guide

People writing in English with my moderation are allowed to follow the “Style Manual for Footnotes in Ecclesia orans”, Ecclesia orans 17 (2000) 7, or in Italian, “Norme seguite dalla rivista Ecclesia Orans per la stesura delle indicazioni bibliografiche”, Ecclesia orans 17 (2000) 8, according to the permission of P. Preside Jordi Pique Collado expressed to me verbally, in person on or around 13 February 2019. Students are to expressly state that they are following these norms in their proposals. I have provided a PDF copy of the Ecclesia orans style guide available for download here.

To help students with their bibliographies, you may consult this web-page in which I present the bibliographies of many texts commonly used in research and analysis of liturgy. While there are still several errors, this bibliography closely follows the norms mentioned above and presented below.

Prof. Ephrem Carr recommends this source for abbreviations of journals, collections:
Schwertner, S.M., Internationales Abkürzungsverzeichnis für Theologie und Grenzgebiete ITAG2 : Zeitschriften, Serien, Lexika, Quellenwerke mit bibliographischen Angaben, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1992 (= International glossary of abbreviations for theology and related subjects) (Sant’Anselmo: Sala di consultazione: Cons Theol 45).

The following is a style guide for writing footnotes, and thus entries for a bibliography, according to the method developed by Prof. Ephrem Carr, OSB, while serving as President of the Pontifical Institute of Liturgy and editor of Ecclesia orans. The first time a publication appears in the footnotes, it is given in full. My example texts are the following:

S. de BLAAWU, Cultus et Decor: Liturgia e architettura nella Roma tardoantica e medievale: Basilica Salvatoris, Sanctae Mariae, Sancti Petri, 2 vol. (Studi e testi 355-356), Biblioteca apostolica Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 1994.

D.P. McCARTHY – J.G. LEACHMAN, Come into the Light: Church interiors for the celebration of liturgy (Documenta rerum ecclesiasticarum instaurata. Liturgiam artibus provehens architectura), Canterbury Press – The Tablet, Norwich 2016.

An example for an edited work is the following:

Appreciating the Collect: An irenic methodology, ed. J.G. Leachman – D.P. McCarthy (Documenta rerum ecclesiasticarum instaurata. Liturgiam aestimare : Appreciating liturgy, 1), St Michael’s Abbey Press, Farnborough Hampshire 2008.

Name of the author

The name of an editor does not belong here. The name of the author is given as follows:

R. De Zan,

S. de BLAAUW,

D.P. McCARTHY,

The forenames are given in capital initial letters, each followed by a period, with no blank space between them. Then the surname given in large and small capital letters, which I cannot reproduce on this web-site, so I have been forced to use all capital letters.

Two authors are written this way:

D.P. McCARTHY – J.G. LEACHMAN,

A hyphen or a longer dash appears between the two names with a space on either side. Some style guides would have you place a hyphen between the two names, with no spaces, which curiously ends up looking like a hyphenated name: “McCARTHY-J.G”.

An entry in the bibliography is composed in the same way as for a footnote with two exceptions.

1. Page numbers in a bibliography

The bibliography presents whole works, whole articles with the page numbers of the entire article, whole entries in an encyclopedia with the page numbers of the entire article, without presenting paragraph numbers or page numbers of specific references, citations or parts of a book, article, entry in an encyclopedia.

2. Alphabetising according to the surname

Due to alphabetising according to the surname, the surname of the first author comes first, followed by a comma and next the initials of the forenames. If there is a second author, then a space, dash, spash separate the two names. The second name is not needed for alphebatising and so appears in the same way as in the footnote with the initials of the forenames first before the surname. Some style guides inexplicably reverse the order for the second name as well, placing the surname before the initials of the forenames, but this is not necessary for alphabetising. Examples follow:

DE ZAN

BLAAUW, S. de,

LEACHMAN, J.G. – D.P. McCARTHY,

Note, because the “De” on De Zan is capitalised, it remains the first part of the surname, but because the “de” on de Blaauw is not capitalised, it does not remain before the surname. The section on the author’s names ends with a comma.

Names of Early Christian authors (patristics) and of magisterial authors (Popes, congregations) are given in Latin without titles such as Episcopus or PP or Sanctus. To find the full Latin name of an author, consult the following sources.

Clavis patrum latinorum, ed. E. Dekkers – A. Gaar (Corpus christianorum series latina), Brepols, Turnhout 3em1995 [Sant’Anselmo library number: Const Patr 4a.002). To use this work, turn to the index on pages 747-774 and find the author’s name. Following the name is a list of references. The bold reference is to the first work in the main entry for that author. Turn to that number (not page number) in the book. In the case of St. Augustine of Hippo, the bold number is lacking, but someone has put a faint box around the number 250 which should be in bold. Turning to number 250 on page 99 you will see an introduction to the author given before the first work, number 250. At the beginning of this introduction you will find his name in bold letters AVGVSTINVS EPISCOPVS HIPPONENSIS. You will have to change this in a couple of ways: 1) omit the title episcopus 2) use the letter “u” in place of the letter “v” where appropriate 3) put the name of the author in small capital letters with large capitals for the A and the H. This results in (big and small capitals): Augustinus Hipponensis.

You may also find this information online while at Sant’Anselmo. Go to the page for the library (here) and there choose “BANCHE DATI” (here). Next choose “LLT-A”. After the new page opens, once again select “LLT-A” also described as “Library of Latin Texts – Series A”. Once you are in the data base, you may search for an author’s name.

Title of a book

The title of a book is given in full and in italic script. The title may be devided into two parts. The main part of the title comes first and is followed by a colon. The sub-title follows. Only the first letter of the sub-title need be capitalised along with proper names, following the rules of the language used. Examples are:

S. de BLAAWU, Cultus et Decor: Liturgia e architettura nella Roma tardoantica e medievale: Basilica Salvatoris, Sanctae Mariae, Sancti Petri,

D.P. McCARTHY – J.G. LEACHMAN, Come into the Light: Church interiors for the celebration of liturgy

After the title there is usually a comma. Note, the second example where the title is not followed by a comma because the series title follows immediately without volume numbers or editors, as we shall see.

Number of volumes

The total number of volumes is then given. For example:

2 vol.

The arabic numeral comes first. Next comes the abbreviation “vol.”, which remains the same in the singular as in the plural. The abbreviation of “vol.” is followed by a comma, unless the series title follows immediately without the name of an editor, as in the example given below. Also see below if you wish to refer to only one volume of a multi-volume work.

Editor

If there is an editor or more than one editor, first comes the abbreviation “ed.” which is used both for one or more than one editor. Next the name or their names are presented in the same way as for the names of authors with the excepttion that no small capital letters are used. Only upper case and lower case letters are used. For the bibliography, the names of editors are not changed because they are not used for alphabetising the entreis. Examples include:

Appreciating the Collect: An irenic methodology, ed. J.G. Leachman – D.P. McCarthy

Note that there is no single author of the above work, so the entry begins with the title. Following the title there is a comma because the series title does not follow immediately.

Series title

Many books are published as part of a series. You will often find the name of the series on the page facing the title page of the volume. The series title is given in rounded parentheses ( ). It is given in standard (not italic) text. Follow the rules of capitalisation for the language used. Latin series can have an initial capital letter and capital letters for proper names, but the rest of the series title is given in lower case letters.

If there is a sub series, the the title of the main series is given first, followed by a period, followed by the sub-series title. If the books of the series are numbered, then the series or sub-series title is followed by a comma and the specific volume number in an arabic numeral. Examples follow:

S. de BLAAWU, Cultus et Decor: Liturgia e architettura nella Roma tardoantica e medievale: Basilica Salvatoris, Sanctae Mariae, Sancti Petri, 2 vol. (Studi e testi 355-356),

D.P. McCARTHY – J.G. LEACHMAN, Come into the Light: Church interiors for the celebration of liturgy (Documenta rerum ecclesiasticarum instaurata. Liturgiam artibus provehens architectura),

Appreciating the Collect: An irenic methodology, ed. J.G. Leachman – D.P. McCarthy (Documenta rerum ecclesiasticarum instaurata. Liturgiam aestimare : Appreciating liturgy, 1),

Note that because the series title is already placed in rounded parentheses, a comma follows it but does not immediately precede it.

  1. In the second example above, the title is followed directly by the series title in rounded parentheses. No comma separates them.
  2. In the top example, the title is followed by a comma. Next comes the number of volumes. Next there is no comma. Next the series title is given in rounded parentheses.
  3. In the bottom exmaple, the title is followed by a comma. Next comes the editors. Next there is no comma. Next the series title is given in rounded parentheses.

Publisher

There is always a comma before the name of the publisher. A comma follows. If two publishers collaborated on the one publication, then their names are separated by a space, hyphen or dash, and a space.

S. de BLAAWU, Cultus et Decor: Liturgia e architettura nella Roma tardoantica e medievale: Basilica Salvatoris, Sanctae Mariae, Sancti Petri, 2 vol. (Studi e testi 355-356), Biblioteca apostolica Vaticana,

D.P. McCARTHY – J.G. LEACHMAN, Come into the Light: Church interiors for the celebration of liturgy (Documenta rerum ecclesiasticarum instaurata. Liturgiam artibus provehens architectura), Canterbury Press – The Tablet,

Appreciating the Collect: An irenic methodology, ed. J.G. Leachman – D.P. McCarthy (Documenta rerum ecclesiasticarum instaurata. Liturgiam aestimare : Appreciating liturgy 1), St Michael’s Abbey Press,

Imprint

Some publishers have more than one imprint. Immediately following the name of the publisher, without a comma, the (imprint is given in rounded parentheses), followed by a comma.

Handbook for Liturgical Studies, vol. 1, Introduction to the Liturgy, ed. A.J. Chupungco, Liturgical Press (A Pueblo Book),

The example above indicates that the volume is published by Liturgical Press and more specifically under the imprint (A Pueblo Book). Some other style guides would have the imprint listed independently and before the publishing house, which is to be avoided.

City

The city of publication is given next. The name of the city is given in Latin letters, but in the local language such as:

Roma

Wien

If the city is not well known, then it is followed by the full name of the larger geogrpahical region. Examples include:

Collegeville Minnesota

Some style guides call for giving the name of the region as an abbreviation, but I find it more difficult to know the abbreviations of regions in many different countries. Thus, I prefer to spell out the name of the region in full. They also give the name of the region in rounded parentheses ( ), but I find that simply complicates the entry.

I do not put a comma between the name of the city and the region.

S. de BLAAWU, Cultus et Decor: Liturgia e architettura nella Roma tardoantica e medievale: Basilica Salvatoris, Sanctae Mariae, Sancti Petri, 2 vol. (Studi e testi 355-356), Biblioteca apostolica Vaticana, Città del Vaticano

Note that the Lateran treaty of 1929 established the independent and sovereign Vatican City State. Books published by the Vatican before then were published in Roma, thereafter in the Città del Vaticano as in the above example.

D.P. McCARTHY – J.G. LEACHMAN, Come into the Light: Church interiors for the celebration of liturgy (Documenta rerum ecclesiasticarum instaurata. Liturgiam artibus provehens architectura), Canterbury Press – The Tablet, Norwich

An example for an edited work is the following:

Appreciating the Collect: An irenic methodology, ed. J.G. Leachman – D.P. McCarthy (Documenta rerum ecclesiasticarum instaurata. Liturgiam aestimare : Appreciating liturgy 1), St Michael’s Abbey Press, Farnborough Hampshire

If more than one city of publication is indicated, they are separated by a space, a hyphen or dash, a space.

Date of publication

No comma precedes the date of publication. This date is usually the copyright date given on the reverse of the title page of the volume.

S. de BLAAWU, Cultus et Decor: Liturgia e architettura nella Roma tardoantica e medievale: Basilica Salvatoris, Sanctae Mariae, Sancti Petri, 2 vol. (Studi e testi 355-356), Biblioteca apostolica Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 1994.

D.P. McCARTHY – J.G. LEACHMAN, Come into the Light: Church interiors for the celebration of liturgy (Documenta rerum ecclesiasticarum instaurata. Liturgiam artibus provehens architectura), Canterbury Press – The Tablet, Norwich 2016.

Appreciating the Collect: An irenic methodology, ed. J.G. Leachman – D.P. McCarthy (Documenta rerum ecclesiasticarum instaurata. Liturgiam aestimare : Appreciating liturgy 1), St Michael’s Abbey Press, Farnborough Hampshire 2008.

Edition

The edition number is given immediately before the date as a small, raised number called a superscript. An example follows in which the third edition was emended in 2008:

Missale Romanum ex decreto Sacrosancti Oecumenici Concilii Vaticani II instauratum auctoritate Pauli PP. VI promulgatum Ioannis Pauli PP. II cura recognitum, editio typica tertia, Typis Vaticanis, Città del Vaticano 3em2008

If the entry ends with the date, then it is followed by a period, as in the bibliography.

Translated works

When a translated work is used, its entry comes first. After the full entry but before the page numbers for the specific citation, there is no comma. A space follows and the an open, round parenthesis: (. Next follows the abbreviation “tr.”. No language is indicated because it is evident in the language of the title of the work. Next the bibliographical information for the original text is given in full. After the full entry, there follows the close, round parenthesis. Next a comma is followed by the page numbers of the specific reference. The following example is given in three different ways.

De Zan, R., “Criticism and Interpretation of Liturgical Texts”, in Handbook for Liturgical Studies, vol. 1, Introduction to the Liturgy, ed. A.J. Chupungco, Liturgical Press (A Pueblo Book), Collegeville Minnesota 1997, 331-365 (tr. R. De Zan, “Introduzione alla Liturgia, Ermeneutica”, in Scientia Liturgica: Manuale di Liturgia, vol. 1, Introduzione alla liturgia, ed. A.J. Chupungco, Piemme, Casale Monferrato 1998, 356-389), 447.

De Zan, R., “Criticism and Interpretation of Liturgical Texts”, in Handbook for Liturgical Studies, ed. A.J. Chupungco, Liturgical Press (A Pueblo Book), Collegeville Minnesota 1997, 1, 331-365 (tr. R. De Zan, “Introduzione alla Liturgia, Ermeneutica”, in Scientia Liturgica: Manuale di Liturgia, ed. A.J. Chupungco, Piemme, Casale Monferrato 1998, 1, 356-389), 447.

De Zan, R., “Criticism and Interpretation of Liturgical Texts”, in Introduction to the Liturgy, ed. A.J. Chupungco (Handbook for Liturgical Studies 1), Liturgical Press (A Pueblo Book), Collegeville MN 1997, 331-365 (tr. R. De Zan, “Introduzione alla Liturgia, Ermeneutica”, ed. A. J. Chupungco [Scientia Liturgica: Manuale di Liturgia 1] Piemme, Casale Monferrato 1998, 356-389), 339.

Abbreviations

The first time a book is mentioned in a footnote, the full entry is given. One way subsequent references may be made is through the use of an abbreviation, a sigla. This abbreviation is to be listed in the list of abbreviations at the beginning of the work. The abbreviation is also mentioned in the first reference to the work in the footnote. For ease of the reader I have also given the abbreviation at the end of the bibliographical entry.

For a book, the date of publication is followed by the (abbreviation) in round parentheses. If you wish, you may add the word “hereafter” followed by a colon, and next the abbreviation.

Missale Romanum ex decreto Sacrosancti Oecumenici Concilii Vaticani II instauratum auctoritate Pauli PP. VI promulgatum Ioannis Pauli PP. II cura recognitum, editio typica tertia, Typis Vaticanis, Città del Vaticano 3em2008 (MR 3em2008).

Missale Romanum ex decreto Sacrosancti Oecumenici Concilii Vaticani II instauratum auctoritate Pauli PP. VI promulgatum Ioannis Pauli PP. II cura recognitum, editio typica tertia, Typis Vaticanis, Città del Vaticano 3em2008 (hereafter: MR 3em2008).

Since the abbreviation refers to the whole book, and not to the specific page numbers of a particular citation, after the abbreviation in (round parentheses), next follows a comma and then the page numbers of the particular citation.

For abbreviations of series, journals, major works please consult the following resource:

Page numbers

In a footnote there may be a reference to specific page numbers. The date is followed by a comma and possible abbreviation. If you are citing a multi volume work, the the volume number is given first as an arabic numeral. This is followed by a comma. Next follows the page number or numbers. If there is a range of pages, they may be abbreviated, but at least one number remains the same, as in the following examples where the numeral 4 remains:

345-49.

5 vol. VS vol. 5

A common difficulty in writing a bibliogrpahy is knowing when to use “5 vol.” and when to use “vol. 5”. In the following example, we see that the Handbook has five volumes = 5 vol.

Handbook for Liturgical Studies, 5 vol., ed. A.J. Chupungco, Liturgical Press (Pueblo Book), Collegeville MN 1997 (tr. of Scientia Liturgica: Manuale di Liturgia, 5 vol., ed. A.J. Chupungco Piemme, Casale Monferrato 1998).

So, “5 vol.” is used when you wish to refer to a multi-volume work as a whole. But when you want to refer to only one volume of a multi volume work, the following example shows that Introduction to the Liturgy is the title of volume 1 = vol. 1.

Handbook for Liturgical Studies, vol. 1, Introduction to the Liturgy, ed. A.J. Chupungco, Liturgical Press (Pueblo Book), Collegeville Minnesota 1997 (tr. of Scientia Liturgica: Manuale di Liturgia, vol. 1, Introduzione alla liturgia, ed. A.J. Chupungco, Piemme, Casale Monferrato 1998).

Another way to present the volumes of a series is as follows:

Introduction to the Liturgy, ed. A.J. Chupungco (Handbook for Liturgical Studies 1), Liturgical Press (Pueblo Book), Collegeville Minnesota 1997 (tr. of Introduzione alla liturgia, ed. A.J. Chupungco [Scientia Liturgica: Manuale di Liturgia 1], Piemme, Casale Monferrato 1998).

Chapter in a book

When a book has different authors for different chapters, you may wish to give a reference to only one author and one chapter.

  1. Author’s name
  2. comma,
  3. “chapter name in double inverted commas”
  4. comma,
  5. the word “in” not in italic type.
  6. the full entry for the edited volume, beginning with the title given as usual in italic type.
  7. After the publication date and possible abbreviation give a comma, followed by the full page range for the whole chapter.
  8. If you then wish to cite a particular page or pages within the chapter, first give the full page range for the whole chapter, followed by a comma, followed by the word “citation” followed by the page numbers of the specific citation.

R.T. FOSTER – D.P. McCARTHY, “Collectarum latinitas”, in Appreciating the Collect: An irenic methodology, ed. J.G. Leachman – D.P. McCarthy (Documenta rerum ecclesiasticarum instaurata. Liturgiam aestimare : Appreciating liturgy 1), St Michael’s Abbey Press, Farnborough Hampshire 2008, 27-56, citation 29.

Article in a journal

  1. Author’s name as above
  2. Title of the article given in standard, not italic type, in “double inverted commas”
  3. comma,
  4. Name of the journal in italic script (no comma)
  5. The volume number as an arabic numeral (no comma)
  6. (Year of publication given in rounded parentheses) (no comma)
  7. Full page numbers of the entire article
  8. If you wish to refer to a particular citation, then give the full page numbers for the entire article, next a comma, next the word “citation”, followed by the page number or numbers for the citation.

D.P. McCARTHY, “A Gentle light in Mourning, Fulfilling Christian Initiation and Life at Funerals”, Ecclesia Orans 36 (2019) 89-119, citation 92.

Subsequent references

Subsequent references to the same work are simplified in one of the two following ways.

The first is used if an abbreviation or sigla has been established for the work.

  1. The abbreviation or sigla is used,
  2. followed by a comma,
  3. then the volume number if needed
  4. followed by a comma,
  5. then the page n umbers of the citaiton.

The second is used if no abbreviation or sigla has been established for the work.

  1. The surname of the author (without the initials of forenames)
  2. comma,
  3. The first few words of the title of a book given in the usual italic script,
  4. or the first few words of a title of an article given “in double inverted commas”
  5. comma,
  6. If it is an edited work, next comes “ed.” followed by the surname of the first editor only.
  7. The Gelesianum vetus, for example,has been published in different editions by different publishers as part of different series and not simply revised editions of the same volume. In this case it is helpful to include the edition in abbreviated form, as indicated below. This is followed by a comma,
  8. page number or numbers of the citation.

The following example is given first in full and then for subsequent references in two ways.

Liber sacramentorum romanae aeclesiae ordinis anni circuli (Cod. Vat. Reg. Lat. 316/Paris Bibl. Nat. 7193, 41/56) (Sacramentarium Gelasianum), ed. L.C. Mohlberg – L. Eizenhöfer – P. Siffrin (Rerum ecclesiasticarum documenta. Series maior, Fontes 4), Herder, Rome 1960 (GelasV 11960), 341 nº 334.

The subsequent reference if an abbreviation or sigla has been established for the work.

GelasV 11960, 342 nº 349.

The subsequent reference if an abbreviation or sigla has not been established for the work.

Sacramentarium Gelasianum, ed. Mohlberg (RED. Series maior, Fontes 4), 342 nº 349.

Abbreviations

A list of abbreviations used by liturgists was developed by Prof. Ephrem Carr, former Preside of the Pontificial Institute of Liturgy, available here.

Prof. Ephrem Carr also recommends this source for abbreviations of journals, collections:
Schwertner, S.M., Internationales Abkürzungsverzeichnis für Theologie und Grenzgebiete ITAG2 : Zeitschriften, Serien, Lexika, Quellenwerke mit bibliographischen Angaben, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1992 (= International glossary of abbreviations for theology and related subjects) (Sant’Anselmo: Sala di consultazione: Cons Theol 45).

Here is a list of further abbreviations that may be useful for research into liturgy.

Some people prefer to use one of the following to lists of abbreviations for journals, collections. The first is the list given at the end of volume 11 of: Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, 11 vol., ed. M. Buchberger – W. Kasper – K. Baumgartner, Herder, Freiburg 1993-2001 (Sant’Anselmo: Sala di consultazione Cons Theol 2a.011)

Other people use the following: L’Année Philologique. The list of abbreviations is available at this online list.