Collects

Pontifical Liturgy Institute

The Latin Expression and Theological Meaning
of Selected Collects

of the Lent and Easter seasons
from the Missale Romanum 2008

Taught byDaniel McCarthy

Course offered in English: 94208 (3 ECTS)
This page has been revised for the Spring semester 2018.

Brief description

This course comprises a detailed study of selected collects of the Lent and Easter seasons from the Missale Romanum using the methodology of the Pontifical Liturgical Institute. The Latin expression, structure and dynamic of the collects will be made clear and four pairs of interpretative keys will be used to appreciate the meaning of the collects in their liturgical-ritual context. Students will grow in their ability and confidence to understand the Latin texts of these prayers and render them into standard English, and to discuss their theological meaning.

Aims

By the end of the course the student will be able:

  1. to follow a method presented in understanding and interpreting a different collect during each session,
  2. to apply the given method to one named Latin collect, accounting for its Latin expression, and rendering it into standard English,
  3. to explain the principles behind the four pairs of interpretative keys:

    anamnesis (narration – ritual programme);
    epiclesis (presentation – invocation);
    eschatology – (fulfillment – moral life and personal maturation).
    theosis (a personal way of living in freedom and love).

  4. to interpret the named Latin collect in its liturgical-ritual context according to these four pairs of interpretative keys

Structure of the course

During each session we shall follow a determined method in examining together a collect. New elements of this method will be presented each session according to two major areas:

First, the Latin expression of the collect will be considered to understand the function of each word in the sentence and the literary structure of the collect, its timeline of events, the interpretative categories of its clauses and its presentation of the divine human exchange.

Second, the interpretation of the collect begins with an understanding of its liturgical-ritual context and continues with an application of the four pairs of interpretative keys to distern their expression in the collect

Learning activities

  1. The instructor will present the elements of the method gradually each session, beginning first with an analysis of the Latin text and literary structure of the prayer, and then continuing with the interpretation of the prayer’s liturgical-ritual context and the four pairs of interpretative keys.
  2. A student will be asked to assist in the presentation of each collect guided by the instructor, and all students will participate in applying gradually more elements of this method to a different collect each session.
  3. At the beginning of the course each student will select an agreed upon collect from the Missale Romanum. As each element of the method is presented, the student will apply it to the named collect during private study

Schedule

The course is scheduled for Tuesday afternoons of the Spring semester 2018. Sessions begin at 15:30 on each of the following days:

February 13, 20, 27, 2018
March 6, 13, 20
(Easter break)
April 10, 17, 24
May 8, 15, 22

Hours: 15:30-17:05

First session 15:30-16:15

Break: 16:15-16:20

Second session 16:20-17:05

Office Hours

Please do not phone the instructor. Rather email him at danielmccarthyosb AT mac DOT com.

He is available outside of class time by appointment.

Bibliography

♦ Latin-English dictionary such as D.P. SIMPSON, Cassell’s English Dictionary, New York-Oxford 1968; or C.T. LEWIS – C. SHORT, A Latin Dictionary, Oxford UP, Oxford – New York 1879 (or later reprint).

♦ Appreciating the CollectAn Irenic Methodology, ed. J.G. Leachman – D.P. McCarthy (Documenta rerum ecclesiasticarum instaurata, Liturgiam aestimare: Appreciating the Liturgy 1), St. Michael’s Abbey Press, Farnborough 2008.

♦ MCCARTHY, D.P. – J.G. LEACHMAN, Listen to the WordCommentaries on Selected Opening Prayers of Sundays and Feasts, The Tablet, London 2009.

♦ FOSTER, R. – D.P. MCCARTHY, Ossa Latinitatis Sola ad mentem Reginaldi rationemqueThe mere bones of Latin according to the thought and system of Reginald (Latinitatis Corpus 1), Catholic University of America Press, Washington DC

also recommended:

♦ Transition in the Easter VigilBecoming Christians. Paschali in vigilia Christiani nominis fieri, ed. D.P. McCarthy – J.G. Leachman (Documenta rerum ecclesiasticarum instaurata, Liturgiam aestimare: Appreciating the Liturgy 2), St. Michael’s Abbey Press, Farnborough 2011.

♦ MCCARTHY, D., “Seeing a Reflection, Considering Appearances: The History, Theology and Literary Composition of the Missale Romanum at a Time of Vernacular Reflection”, Questions Liturgiques / Studies in Liturgy 94 (2013) 109-143.

♦ LEACHMAN, J.G., – D.P. MCCARTHY, “A Liturgical Study of the proper prayers for St Charles of St Andrew Houben, C.P., (1) The Opening Prayer,” Questions Liturgiques: Studies in Liturgy 92 (2011) 28-44 (second edition of “J.G. Leachman, “Studium liturgiczne kolekty o św. Karolu od św. Andrzeja Houbenie CP”, Słowo Krzyża Crucis Verbum 4 [2010], 230-243).

♦ RUSSELL, N., The Doctrine of Deification in the Greek Patristic Tradition (Oxford Early Christian Studies), Oxford UP, Oxford 2006.

♦ REGAN, P., “The Collect in Context”, in Appreciating the Collect, ed. Leachman, St. Michael’s Abbey Press, Farnborough 2008.

Enter an inflected form of your word in the field under the heading “Dictionary Entry Lookup”, located in the column on the right.
Parsing tool with Lewis and Short Dictionary♦ LEWIS and SHORT dictionary available here: Enter the dictionary entry for your word in the field under the heading “Dictionary Entry Lookup”, located in the column on the right.

 

Examination

Preparation: At the beginning of the course the student select one of the prayers that we shall consider during this course. As we progress through each step of analysis and interpretation, the student applies each to the chosen prayer. For the exam the student is to have a thorough knowledge of the Latin expression of the prayer and be able to explain the function of each word in the prayer if needed. Such knowledge, however, is foundational to the discussion during the oral exam. The student is to prepare an interpretation of the chosen prayer according to all four interpretative keys.

Explanation: During the oral exam the instructor chooses one of the four interpretative keys. The student both demonstrates an understanding of the theory involved in the chosen interpretative key and then applies the interpretative key to the selected collect in its liturgical-ritual context. Only if there is doubt, will the instructor ask the student about the function of any Latin word of the collect and its literary composition.

Criteria for evaluation: Both the regular participation of the student in class discussions and a final oral exam are assessed based on the following criteria:

  1. a clear understanding of the function of each word and the literary structure of the Latin collect,
  2. a clearly developed presentation of the selected interpretative key,
  3. a well considered application of the selected interpretative key to the text of the collect in its liturgical-ritual context.

This is an open book exam, so students may bring their notes and printed resources. The exam is timed, so the student is advised to prepare the material well and then to focus on the essential elements for presentation. The instructor may ask questions to help the student provide a fuller response.

Academic program

The program of studies, course descriptions and calendar for the academic year 2017-2018 is available for download here.

Place

This course is offered in English at the Pontifical Institute of Liturgy housed at:

Sant’Anselmo
Piazza Cavalieri di Malta, 5
00153 Roma, Italia

See map below.

 

Collect Prayers of Sundays in Lent and of Easter

The material of this course comprises the collects of Sundays and Feasts of Lent and Easter. The full listing of the Latin texts of these collects is available here for download to use during this course.

Nota bene: Students are requested to print this document which contains all of the prayers we shall coinsider and bring all of these prayers with them to class each session. This will help the student to study the prayer assigned to each session and the student will have all of the prayers available in case we examine another prayer spontaneously.

Students are also requested to print this web-page which contains the course description and the class schedule and bring them to each session so that the student will have all of the resources necessary for our discussions.

Each student is encouraged to access the instructor’s English translations of numerous mass formularies of Sundays and feasts published in The Tablet of London from 28 November 2009 – 20 November 2010, available at the front desk of the library. A listing of these commentaries arranged according to their liturgical day are found at this link.

Schedule in detail

revised for academic year
2017-2018

Session 1: 13 February 2018
We shall examine the collect for the Third Sunday in Lent

We shall meet one another.
The instructor will introduce the course, and explain the method of exam.
We shall consider the following prayer:

DOMINICA III IN QUADRAGESIMA

Deus, ómnium misericordiárum et totíus bonitátis auctor,
qui peccatórum remédia in ieiúniis,
oratiónibus et eleemósynis demonstrásti,
hanc humilitátis nostrae confessiónem propítius intuére,
ut, qui inclinámur consciéntia nostra,
tua semper misericórdia sublevémur.
Per Dóminum.

O God, source of all mercies and of all goodness,
who have pointed out the remedies of sins in fasts, prayers and almsgiving,
kind one look upon this acknowledgement of our humility,
so that we, who are bent down by our conscience,
may always be raised up by your mercy.

Translation and commentary: D.P. McCarthy, “Alive in us”, Listen to the Word, The Tablet (6 March 2010) 17; idem, “May we be raised up”, Listen to the Word, The Tablet (18 March 2006) 18.

We shall warm up with a simple exercise of giving the English meanings in all the verbal times in the indicative of the two following verbs from the collect for the third Sunday in Lent:

demonstrásti, from the verb demonstro, are, avi, atum, “to point out, designate, show”,

intuére, from the deponent verb intúeor, intuéri, intúitus, “to look upon” See: “Encounter 7”, Ossa Latinitatis Sola.

We shall also begin our method of understanding of the Latin composition of a collect using the following steps:

  1. write the prayer out
  2. read the prayer outloud
  3. underline the action words (verbs, participles, gerunds, gerundives)
  4. the ( relative pronoun opens a clause:
    1. where is its verb
    2. where does the clause end )
    3. how does the relative function in its own clause
    4. identify its gender, number and antecedent
      See: Encounters 10, 11
  5. the [ ut opens a clause:
    1. where is its verb
    2. where does the clause end ]
  6. put rounded parentheses around ( participial clauses )
    See: Encounters 50-53
  7. identify ( ablatives absolute ) See: Encounters 54-57
  8. identify the prepositions and their objects; put rounded parentheses around ( prepositional phrases )
    See: Encounters 6, 28
  9. indicate verbs of M&M
    1. giving rise to an object form functioning as a subject
    2. of an infinitive verb See: Encounters 71-73
  10. do the same with other clauses
  11. draw a tree showing how one clause depends on another and label the connecting words at the juncture of each branch, that is clause
  12. establish the times of verbs
  13. draw a timeline of the actions and goal
  14. give a draft rendering of the prayer in clear English
  15. discern the interpretative categories of the prayer. Complete a chart with three columns with the following three headings in this order from left to right:
    Latin text | function in Latin sentence | interpretative category
    The interpretative categories may include the following
    See: R. De Zan, “How to Interpret a Collect”, Appreciating the Collect, 6.3 on p. 75;
    D.P. McCarthy, “Between Memories and Hopes: Anamnesis and Eschatology in selected collects”, Appreciating the Collect;
    Listen to the Word – many examples of using this method.
    Transition in the Easter vigil – many examples of using this method.
    1. addresss: direct address See: Encounter 38.3
    2. amplification
      1. relative clause
      2. in apposition
    3. petition
      1. command
        See: Encounters 17, 34, 85
      2. independent subjunctive
        See: Encounter 94.3
    4. motor (driving the prayer to its conclusion)
      1. participial phrase, active or passive
        See: Encounters 50-53
      2. relative clause in the purpose
        See: Encounters 10, 11
      3. ablative absolute
        See: Encounters 54-57
    5. purpose expressed in 14 ways See: Encounter 84
    6. goal (ad + object) See: Encounter 6

Session 2: 20 February
We shall examine the collect for the Fifth Sunday of Easter

FERIA V IN CENA DOMINI
AD MISSAM VESPERTINAM
(Mass of Holy Thursday evening): Presenter: Fr. Jobin Plackyll

Sacratíssimam, Deus, frequentántibus Cénam,

in qua Unigénitus túus, mórti se tradituúrus, 

nóvum in saáecula sacrifícium 

dilectionísque súae convívium Ecclésiae commendávit, 

da nobis, quáesumus, ut ex tánto mystério 

plenitúdinem caritátis hauriámus et vítae.

Per Dóminum.

We shall examine the four participles presented by the instructor:
See: Encounters 50-53

  1. contemporaneous active
  2. antecedent passive (antecedent active – deponent)
  3. futurity
  4. passive necessity

We shall progress in our analysis of the Latin text of the prayer given in the first encounter.

Session 3: 27 February
We shall examine the collect for the Fourth Sunday in Lent

DOMINICA IV IN QUADRAGESIMA
Presenter: Mr. Jeroen Heiremans

Deus, qui per Verbum tuum

humáni géneris reconciliatiónem mirabíliter operáris,

praesta, quaésumus, ut pópulus christiánus

prompta devotióne et álacri fide

ad ventúra sollémnia váleat festináre.

Per Dóminum.

We shall give specific attention to the construction of ut followed by the subjunctive. See: Encounter 58 We shall examine the full time frame of verbs in the first and second subjunctive. More generally, we shall examine the 14 ways to express purpose. See: Encounter 84

We shall consider the construction of goals, especially the preposition ad followed by an object. See: Encounter 6

Session 4: 6 March
We shall consider the collect for the Fifth Sunday in Lent

DOMINICA V IN QUADRAGESIMA

Quaésumus, Dómine Deus noster, ut in illa caritáte,

qua Fílius tuus díligens mundum morti se trádidit,

inveniámur ipsi, te opitulánte, alácriter ambulántes.

Per Dóminum.

We shall examine the construction of the Ablative Absolute and its role in the sentence, and how to render it into clear English. See: Encounters 54-57

We shall begin to apply a basic semiotic analysis to the prayers asking the following three questions, being mindful of both active and passive events:

  1. Who does it?
    name the subjects
    name the subjects and agents of passive forms
  2. Who does what?
    add the objects and object sentences (note the 65 and compound verbs)
  3. Who does what to whom?
    add the indirect objects, ablative and other elements

We shall draw a chart to answer the first question. From this initial chart we may gain a general understanding of the divine-human exchange in the prayer.

We shall copy the first chart and add to it the answers to the second question.

We shall copy the second chart and add to it the answers to the third question.

From this analysis, we shall develop an interpretation of the divine-human exchange in the prayer. See: Appreciating the CollectTransition in the Easter vigil

Session 5: 13 March
We shall consider the collect for the Sixth Sunday of Easter

DOMINICA VI PASCHAE

Fac nos, omnípotens Deus, hos laetítiae dies,

quos in honórem Dómini resurgéntis exséquimur,

afféctu sédulo celebráre,

ut quod recordatióne percúrrimus

semper in ópere teneámus.

Per Dóminum.

We shall consider the mode of speaking in indirect discourse, and the function of object sentences.

We shall consider the performative steps of a collect type prayer:

1. invitation to pray
2. silence for personal prayer
3. prayer offered by the minister
4. ratificaiton of the prayer by the assembly: “Amen”.
See: De Zan; Appreciating the CollectListen to the Word

We shall also consider the ritual programme of the collect as the conclusion of the entrance rites and preparation to listen to the Word and to continue the procession toward shared communion. See: REGAN, P., “The Collect in Context”, in Appreciating the Collect, ed. Leachman, St. Michael’s Abbey Press, Farnborough 2008. See also: McCarthy, D.P. – J.G. Leachman, Come into the Light, Canterbury Press, Norwich 2016.

Session 6: 20 March
We shall consider the collect for the Sixth Sunday in Lent

HEBDOMADA SANCTA
DOMINICA IN PALMIS
DE PASSIONE DOMINI

Omnípotens sempitérne Deus,

qui humáno géneri, ad imitándum humilitátis exémplum,

Salvatórem nostrum carnem súmere,

et crucem subíre fecísti,

concéde propítius,

ut et patiéntiae ipsíus habére documénta

et resurrectiónis consórtia mereámur.

Qui tecum.

We shall conclude our presentation of the Latin expression of the collects by considering the function of the gerund in the prayer.

We shall next begin the second half of the course which will focus on the four interpretative keys for understanding a ritual action, or in this case a collect offered in its ritual context. We present each of these four interpretative keys as a pair:

anamnesis is understood according to the presentation of Prof. De Zan in terms of the narrative of the saving works of God and celebrating the ritual programme. See: D.P. McCarthy, “Between Memories and Hopes: Anamnesis and Eschatology in selected collects”, Appreciating the Collect; see also: Transition in the Easter vigil, pp. 124-127; see also:  J.G. Leachman – D.P. McCarthy, “A Liturgical Study of the proper prayers for St Charles of St Andrew Houben, C.P. 1: The Opening Prayer”, Questions Liturgiques: Studies in Liturgy 92 (2011) 28-44, especially 40-41

Epiclesis is understood in terms of the presentation of one’s self to God in prayer at the prompting of the Holy Spirit, and the invocation of God. As we process to meet Christ the one coming, this double procession leads to an encounter in which the human person is changed in the following two ways. See: Transition in the Easter Vigil, pp. 123-124; see also: Leachman, “A Liturgical Study of the proper prayers”, 39-40 Transition in the Easter vigil

Eschatology is the graced process of transcending one’s former self in order to become one’s self anew in a greater communion. By such stages of human maturation a person cooperates in one’s own graced transformation into the body of Christ. This is lived in daily life, according to the Gospel of Matthew chapter 25, by our moral behaviour in the world. See: D.P. McCarthy, “Between Memories and Hopes: Anamnesis and Eschatology in selected collects”, Appreciating the Collect; see also: Transition in the Easter Vigil, pp. 127-128; see also: Leachman, “A Liturgical Study of the proper prayers”, 41-42.

Theosis is the graced experience of coming to full human personhood, that is to share on a human level in the personal way of being proper to the Divine Trinity. This is experienced in the personal exercise of freedom in a bond of love.

For the discussion of Theosis, see the comments of Norman Russell on the contribution of John Zizioulas in N. Russell, The Doctrine of Deification in the Greek Patristic Tradition (Oxford Early Christian Studies), Oxford UP, Oxford 2006, 318. See also: Transition in the Easter Vigil, pp. 333-38; see also: Leachman, “A Liturgical Study of the proper prayers”, 5.1 on page 39, 5.5 on pages 42-44.

In this session we shall begin to consider the interpretative key of anamnesis.

Session 7: 10 April
We shall consider the collect for the Second Sunday of Easter

DOMINICA VII PASCHAE

Supplicatiónibus nostris, Dómine, adésto propítius,

ut, sicut humáni géneris Salvatórem

tecum in tua crédimus maiestáte,

ita eum usque ad consummatiónem saéculi

manére nobíscum,

sicut ipse promísit, sentiámus.

Qui tecum.

We shall continue our considration of anamnesis in this encounter. See: D.P. McCarthy, “Between Memories and Hopes: Anamnesis and Eschatology in selected collects”, Appreciating the CollectTransition in the Easter vigil

Session 8: 17 April
We shall examine the collect for the Eighth Sunday of Easter

DOMINICA PENTECOSTES
Sollemnitas
Ad Missam in die

Deus, qui sacraménto festivitátis hodiérnae

univérsam Ecclésiam tuam

in omni gente et natióne sanctíficas,

in totam mundi latitúdinem Spíritus Sancti dona defúnde,

et, quod inter ipsa evangélicae praedicatiónis exórdia

operáta est divína dignátio,

nunc quoque per credéntium corda perfúnde.

Per Dóminum.

We shall turn our consideration to the interpretative key of epiclesis. See: Transition in the Easter vigil

Session 9: 24 April
We shall examine the collect for the First Sunday in Lent

DOMINICA I IN QUADRAGESIMA

Concéde nobis, omnípotens Deus,

ut, per ánnua quadragesimális exercítia sacraménti,

et ad intellegéndum Christi proficiámus arcánum,

et efféctus eius digna conversatióne sectémur.

Per Dóminum.

This collect will guide our consideration of the interpretative key of eschatology. We shall also consider how the collect presents steps of human maturation. See: D.P. McCarthy, “Between Memories and Hopes: Anamnesis and Eschatology in selected collects”, Appreciating the CollectTransition in the Easter vigil

Session 10: 8 May
We shall consider the collect for the Third Sunday of Easter

DOMINICA III PASCHAE

Semper exsúltet pópulus tuus, Deus,

renováta ánimae iuventúte,

ut, qui nunc laetátur in adoptiónis se glóriam restitútum,

resurrectiónis diem spe certae gratulatiónis exspéctet.

Per Dóminum.

This collect will guide our consideration of theosis. see the comments of Norman Russell on the contribution of John Zizioulas in N. Russell, The Doctrine of Deification in the Greek Patristic Tradition (Oxford Early Christian Studies), Oxford UP, Oxford 2006, 318. See also: Appreciating the CollectTransition in the Easter vigil

Session 11: 15 May
We shall consider the collect for Easter Sunday, Mass during the day

DOMINICA PASCH.
IN RESURRECTIONE DOMINI
Ad Missam in die

Deus, qui hodiérna die, per Unigénitum tuum,

aeternitátis nobis áditum, devícta morte, reserásti,

da nobis, quaésumus,

ut, qui resurrectiónis domínicae sollémnia cólimus,

per innovatiónem tui Spíritus

in lúmine vitae resurgámus.

Per Dóminum.

During the final sessions of our course, we shall review all that we have learned by examining a different collect during each session.

Session 12: 22 May
We shall examine the collect for the Ascension

IN ASCENSIONE DOMINI
Sollemnitas
Ad Missam in die

Fac nos, omnípotens Deus, sanctis exsultáre gáudiis,

et pia gratiárum actióne laetári,

quia Christi Fílii tui ascénsio est nostra provéctio,

et quo procéssit glória cápitis, eo spes vocátur et córporis.

Per Dóminum.

The collect of the Ascension will guide our review of all the material presented in this course.

We shall consider the collect for the Seventh Sunday of Easter

DOMINICA VII PASCHAE

Supplicatiónibus nostris, Dómine, adésto propítius,

ut, sicut humáni géneris Salvatórem

tecum in tua crédimus maiestáte,

ita eum usque ad consummatiónem saéculi

manére nobíscum,

sicut ipse promísit, sentiámus.

Qui tecum.

We shall review all we have studied by examining the collect of the Seventh Sunday of Easter.

If one of the previous classes is for any reason cancelled, that session and all the subsequent ones will be considered in turn, and the loss of a session will be made up by omitting this last review session.

Collects for Sundays in Lent and of Easter which are not slated for consideration are the following. If time were to permit, they may so be considered, and so are included in your packet of material:

  1. Collect for the Second Sunday in Lent
  2. Collect for the Second Sunday of Easter
  3. Collect for the Fourth Sunday of Easter
  4. Collect for the Fifth Sunday of Easter
  5. Collect of the Vigil of the Ascension
  6. Alternative Collect of the Ascension (day)
  7. Collect of the Vigil of Pentecost
  8. Alternative Collect of the Vigil of Pentecost

Materials continued

You may purchase our books from Sr. Bernadette or the English desk at:

Pauline multimedia
via del Mascherino, 94
00193 Roma
Tel. 06.6872354
Fax: 06.68308093
Sr. Bernadette: Inglese@paoline-multimedia.it
General enquiries: centro@paoline-multimedia.it
www.paoline-multimedia.it

Map:

Latin resources

I have begun to develop a page of resources for the Latin language including: dictionaries, grammars, resources, texts, links.

Online free, more:

Classical Works Knowledge Base:
http://cwkb.org

Another I have found is Neumen: The Latin Lexicon:
http://latinlexicon.org/index.php

© 9 February 2018 by Daniel McCarthy